Corticosteroids uses ppt

Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was first reported in 1983. [39] It is currently the primary form of liver disease among children. [40] NAFLD has been associated with the metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies have demonstrated that abdominal obesity and insulin-resistance in particular are thought to be key contributors to the development of NAFLD. [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] Because obesity is becoming an increasingly common problem worldwide, the prevalence of NAFLD has been increasing concurrently. [46] Moreover, boys are more likely to be diagnosed with NAFLD than girls with a ratio of 2:1. [47] [48] Studies have suggested that progression toward a more advance stage of disease among children is dependent on age and presence of obesity. [43] This finding is consistent with previous studies in adults demonstrating the same association between age and obesity, and liver fibrosis. [49] [50] Early diagnosis of NAFLD in children may help prevent the development of liver disease during adulthood. [43] [51] This is challenging as most children with NAFLD are asymptomatic with few showing abdominal pain. [51] Currently, liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD. [40] However, this method is invasive, costly and bears greater risk for children, and noninvasive screening and diagnosing methods would have significant public health implications for children with NAFLD. [40] The only treatment shown to be truly effective in childhood NAFLD is weight loss. [52] [53]

The classic histologic features of alcoholic hepatitis include inflammation and necrosis, which are most prominent in the centrilobular region of the hepatic acinus ( Figure 2 ). Hepatocytes are classically ballooned, which causes compression of the sinusoid and reversible portal hypertension. The inflammatory cell infiltrate, located primarily in the sinusoids and close to necrotic hepatocytes, consists of polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells. In addition to inflammation and necrosis, many patients with alcoholic hepatitis have fatty infiltration and Mallory bodies, which are intracellular perinuclear aggregations of intermediate filaments that are eosinophilic on hematoxylin-eosin staining. Neither fatty infiltration nor Mallory bodies are specific for alcoholic hepatitis or necessary for the diagnosis. 16

Corticosteroids uses ppt

corticosteroids uses ppt

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